When you read articles in the media and statements by opponents of the "perpetual motion", then hit them zazombirovannost. And their main argument against the possibility of realizing the eternal movement of the working body in some kind of device is that the ostensibly "perpetual motion" violates the law of conservation of energy. Ostensibly, the energy in nature at all, and all are missing, so the work is "eternal" engine will be accompanied by a loss of energy, such as friction and in the end run "eternal," the engine will stop. Well, what if there is an eternal source of strength? Well, for example, such as gravity. Painfully, the eternal source of strength. Well, can not pass.
When you begin to delve into the physics of the process, it turns out a lot of interesting things.First of all, even the mechanical motion is presented to us in different ways in different books.Take Newton's laws. Immediately clear that the laws are a bit wrong, they should be arranged in reverse order. The third law has to be first, because it is the law of the level of philosophy, which has a broader interpretation than other laws. Let's do that:
- The forces generated by interaction of two bodies, both directly and through the fields appear in the interaction of bodies (body field), are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.
- There are some frame of reference relative to which the body (point mass) in the absence of external influences on it (or for their mutual compensation) saves the state of rest or uniform rectilinear motion.
- The force acting on a body equals the product of body mass on the acceleration imparted to that body by force.
If such a sequence of laws somehow easier to understand the processes occurring in different, not only the mechanical systems, including the so-called "eternal" engines.
First, the force appears only at the time of interaction of bodies. This means that the stream of water flowing evenly from the vessel between the particles of water there is no force interaction. Strange? Me too!
Second, if a system. some force acts, the presence of uniform motion in this system indicates that the strength of such a system compensated, which means that, for example silya gravity can be compensated by the friction force and the load. It turns out that we can create the device, parts of which will be in the gravitational field of the planet to move without breaking the law of conservation of energy.
For Newton's laws are primary with respect to the law of conservation of energy. It was Newton himself showed that the presence of the force may commit, as a product of the force acting on the body, the distance traveled by this body. Strength is primary, and the work is calculated as follows. Consequently, the energy - it is velichna secondary to strength, quantity, as well as work, estimated, expected, and the magnitude of the work we can speak only after some action has already occurred. If the body moves without acceleration, uniformly, over it, no work was done. Therefore, the nature of the whole does not do the work in relation to a uniformly rotating wheel with floats underwater, but the wheel in relation to the work load does. Strange? Me too!
Therefore, concepts such as potential or kinetic energy must be treated with caution, and every time to explain what we have in mind here. Any formula helps to suggest what might happen in the interaction of two bodies (or fields to the body), but the final result should always be evaluated after the interaction. And if the result of the experiment differs from the preliminary calculation of the formula, you should understand the essence of the process and find the causes of these deviations.
One of the devices, which demonstrated a huge number of people and all kinds of commissions - is the "wheel Orfireusa." It revolved, contrary to academics, and even Newton himself. But only now become clear that the rotation of the wheel moves the wheels of the two sections in the cargo in two mutually perpendicular directions, and interconnected cables.As a result of goods in a gravitational field, moving from one position in a sector to another - only to interact with each other and the force of gravity. After moving, they have interacting with the wheel and the force of gravity. When moving from one position to another on each consignment of mutually connected by cables, on both sides of the same act of force, and therefore weights were under the influence of the second (in my order) Newton's law. They moved in weightlessness, full or partial. This indicates that the most likely "wheel Orfireusa 'rotation has lost weight, from about 10 to 20%. Another device, which mainstream science is silent as a partisan, is the so-called "koltsar Lazarev." Although this device is the first time created a brilliant Russian inventor Ivan Kulibin. Lazarev in 1970, repeated it, received a patent, but is now on the internet about Lazarev, but his family could not find anything. This device is very simple. The vertical sealed cylinder is divided into two compartments by about the middle of a horizontal porous membrane. In each compartment poured a little water (gasoline), the air above the water or another gas, which in theory should not be mixed with water or dissolved in it. Through the porous membrane is practically from the bottom to the top of the lower compartment of the upper cover is missing a tube bent at the top. All this is well seen in Figure 1, where the left shows the fountain Kulibina and two versions of "koltsara Lazarev."
Despite the simplicity of the device and its performance is still debate about the processes that cause water to overflow through a pipe from the lower to the upper compartment, as well as the possibility of using this device as a generator of energy. The effect is there, the water drips, drops the frequency depends on many factors, primarily on the ambient temperature.And amazed that not all see the elephant. The most important factor, the most important participant in this process is the Earth's gravity. The merit of the inventors, as Kulibina and Lazarev is precisely in the fact that they are primarily used by gravity, but made an interpreted incorrectly. This is not the thermodynamic (heat) engine, the engine of gravity.And all the fault of the porous wall. The inventors have not thought a little bit its construction, could not get over the prejudices in physics, and could have done this on purpose, to the glory went to us.
Why is this engine gravity? Because it is gravity provides a clear separation of water and air in each compartment. Without gravity, the gravity would be all messed up and some time after the pressure equalization of air bubbles in the two compartments of the movement of water has stopped, but rather the amount of water passing from one section to another, would have equaled kolicheskom water passing (leakage) in the other direction . But gravity, the force acting in one direction, provides water seepage through the porous membrane only from the upper to the lower compartment and an air bubble in the lower compartment of restoring the disturbed equilibrium surpasses the excess water from the lower to the upper compartment. And while the fountain Kulibina will stand vertically in a gravitational field, while the water is an air bubble as a pneumatic spring, the water will circulate it on the "route". And it is not according to the rate of evaporation of water depending on ambient temperature. The point here is primarily as a function of permeability of the porous membrane to the ambient temperature and pressure in gas bubbles. Although the ambient temperature affects the gas pressure above the water, among them a large role is played by pairs of the water, but if we poured into this device the oil and put a porous membrane, which transmits the oil, but do not let the air (gas), the dependence of the velocity of the oil from verhnergo compartment in the bottom and from bottom to top would not be so pronounced. Unfortunately this experience was not performed. Therefore, further improvement of the fountain Kulibina (koltsara Lazarev) in the aggregate, is able to be a source of energy, should be to stop playing games, and build the installation, comparable in size to the generator at the thermal power station or hydropower. In this case we get a huge tank, for example, a diameter of 10 meters and a height of 30-50 meters. And the main thing in this setup - "membrane" that allows water to drain from the upper to the lower section, but does not allow air from the lower compartment to get to the upper compartment. And this is purely an engineering problem. As a "membrane" can be used many-a layer of sand or use a more complex filter, which provide air capture and return it (pumping) in the lower compartment, if any part of it from the lower chamber will be able to climb inside the "membrane". Pumping the air does not require a lot of energy, but will maintain the pressure of the gas (air) in the compartments at a given level.A sand by the water can flow to a greater extent than ceramics. And so we get an increase in plant capacity. As a "membrane" can use the system of tubes, approximately as shown in Figure 2.
Let's think, and whether such a device work? We assume that it works. Under the influence of gravity, water will flow from the outer compartment in the bottom of a curved tube. The air from the lower compartment of the tube to get to the upper chamber can not, because the actual pressure in the tube will be many times higher than the air pressure in the lower compartment. But to squeeze out the water from the lower compartment to the upper air can shrunk. In addition the flow of water will not allow air to move the lower chamber through the tube into the upper compartment. To enhance this effect can be install on the end of the tube nozzle with a smaller diameter, which will further increase the velocity of the water, and if you set at the end of the tube "Segnera turbine", it will create a virtually insurmountable barrier to the air. Thus, the device will work. In the analysis of processes in such koltsare Lazarev must be remembered that the system, except the force of gravity, completely closed on itself. In the compartments and the pressure will be balanced by a large pressure difference between the upper and lower section will not be. For how much water will be discharged from the upper to the lower section, the same amount of water will be poured at once from the lower to the upper section. And this process will occur until koltsar will stand upright in the Earth's gravitational field. In this case no expenditure of energy of the gravitational field will not occur, because the very existence of Earth's gravitational field does not depend on whether we use koltsar or not. Gravity, or is or is not. And the force of gravity depends only on the Earth's mass and body weight in a gravitational field of the Earth. Power, as I noted above, is the primary factor in any process. There is power, then will work, will and energy. Only need to be able to find a way to counter the force of gravity by the other, in this case, this second force is the force of the gas springs, gas bubbles in the upper and lower compartments. In the upper compartment of the gas pressure (air) will tend to decrease, while the lower compartment of the gas pressure will tend to increase. Therefore, running down to the bottom section of the water will have something to lift up without the use of additional devices, without attracting additional sources of energy (motion). In fact, for two gravity will work under the influence of which the water will drain into the lower section to compress the air in the lower section and reduce the air pressure in the upper section, and the air bubbles will be friendly to pump water from the lower section at the top. And now is either a turbine generator podklyucht Segnera, or substitute a turbine for water flow in the upper section. And we have virtually eternal source of energy. Or both. Naturally, Takako system will require its technology services. The whole system is probably at work must be hermetically separated from the external environment, or friendly "work" section can be broken. It may need to constantly monitor the pressure of the gas (air) in the sections and, if necessary, gas (air) can be swap (or a pump to pump from one section to another). But such an arrangement, the fuel is not required.
Is there an analog in nature Kulibina fountain? Perhaps many will say no. And if you think about? Imagine that we have a high mountain, a mountain lake and a lake isolated from the outside the cave in which water is seeping out of the lake, creating a ceiling caves beautiful stalactites. Then the water flows into an underground stream, which goes somewhere in the deep, under a rock, a mountain, which already forms a subterranean lake, but without the gas bubble above it. Then the water finds on this lake, a narrow passage leading to the top of the mountain. And if for some reason the pressure of gases (air) in a cave with stalactites will be high, the water will be constantly squeezed to the top of the mountain, and from there flow into the lake. Then the cycle repeats. And we'll still long to admire the beautiful waterfall, assuming its existence to this fiction. And now would like to make the assumption that one of the options "-gidrotarana Marukhin Kutenkova," that's so (Fig. 3) seems to be made in the image of the fountain Kulibina, only the upper section to the atmosphere.
Now the present, as this gidrotaran, with a capacity of 1 kW, seems to me after the installation of any tank (Fig. 4). Once installed in the tank remains gidrotarana pump air into the lower bay, pinch clamp, and thereby create in the lower segment of the air bubble with water, which subsequently will be using gravity to pump water into the turbine Segnera. It is possible that water is drained from the top down, too, through the tutbinu Segnera, which can be easily placed inside gidrotarana, in a compartment with air. Hence a lot of power for this little device. This waterfall in miniature.
So it can only reply with Marukhin Kutenkovym. It is possible that they gidrotaran in the tank with a diameter of 2 meters and a height of 8 meters is sdelanpolnostyu sealed and the scheme is close to the one shown in Figure 2. And Figure 3 shows a toy with which to Marukhin Kutenkovym checked his latest idea. Do not rule out that they have carefully read our forums, chose a promising idea, one of us discussed, and implemented it. And nothing prevents us from their own experience to make sure that Fantan Kulibina (koltsar Lazarev) is not a toy, but a powerful gravitational energy generator, the bulk of which falls on the working body - water. And if you promote it well, then we obtain an analogue of the "wheel Orfira." You just need to move my arms gyri and work.